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ENERGY UNITS
   

What is a Btu?

Btu stands for British Thermal Unit, which is a unit of energy consumed by or delivered to a building. A Btu is defined as the amount of energy required to increase the temperature of 1 pound of water by 1 degree Fahrenheit, at normal atmospheric pressure.

Energy consumption is expressed in BTU to allow for consumption comparisons among fuels that are measured in different units. 

BTU Conversion Factors:
The Btu conversion factors used for this survey are shown in the following table:   

Energy Source   Btu Equivalent   Unit
Electricity       3,412    kilowatt hour (kWh)
Natural Gas       1,027    cubic foot 
All types of Fuel Oil (except Kerosene)   138,690    gallon 
Kerosene   135,000    gallon 
         
Note: A Btu of district hot water has been converted into equivalent pounds of steam with the conversion of 1,000 Btu hot water approximately = 1 pound steam.

Sources: Energy Information Administration; for natural gas � Natural Gas Annual (1992), p. 238; for electricity, fuel oil and kerosene � Monthly Energy Review (October, 1997); for district steam � Methodological Issues in the Nonresidential Buildings Energy Consumption Survey (September 1983), p. 173-175.

Examples

BTU to Kilowatt hours:      2,000,000 Btu / 3,412             =         586         kWh
Kilowatt hours to BTU:      800 kWh * 3,412                    =  2,729,600     BTU
BTU to Cubic feet:            2,000,000 Btu / 1,027              =        1,947      cubic feet
Cubic feet to BTU:            800 cubic feet * 1,027              =     821,600     BTU




ENERGY CONVERSION CALCULATOR: 

http://www.hessenergy.com/dashboard/conversionCalculator.aspx
 

Conversion Factors 

The conversion factors below are intended to allow
quick conversions between common units of energy.
FUEL OIL
To Change To Multiply By
Barrel Gallons 42
Gallons of # 2 Oil MMBtu 0.14
Gallons of # 2 Oil kWH 41.0196
Gallons of # 4 Oil MMBtu 0.1465
Gallons of # 4 Oil kWH 42.9241
Gallons of # 6 Oil MMBtu 0.15
Gallons of # 6 Oil kWH 43.9496


 

NATURAL GAS
To Change To Multiply By
MMBtu Mcf 1
MMBtu Bcf 0.000001
MMBtu Dth 1
MMBtu therm 10
MMBtu Gallons of # 2 Oil 7.1429
MMBtu Gallons of # 4 Oil 6.8259
MMBtu Gallons of # 6 Oil 6.6667
MMBtu KW 292.9974


 

ELECTRICITY
To Change To Multiply By
kWh MW 0.001
kWH Mcf 0.0034
kWH Gallons of # 2 Oil 0.0244
kWH Gallons of # 4 Oil 0.0233
kWH Gallons of # 6 Oil 0.0228

 

FUEL OIL CONVERSION

  1 Barrel                   =    42 gallons

  1 Dth natural gas       =    7 gallons of # 2 oil


  # 2 oil      7.143 gallons        =     1 MMBtu
  # 4 oil      6.826 gallons        =     1 MMBtu
  # 6 oil      6.667 gallons        =     1 MMBtu



ELECTRICITY:
 Demand            1 MW            =      1,000 KW
  Consumption    1 KWH         =      1KW x 1 hour



TIME:

  1 year        =     8,760 hours

...............................................................................

Relative Btu Content 
of Primary and Secondary Fuels

Fuel

 Unit  Btu/unit

MBtu

 # 2 Fuel Oil gallon (US) 139,000 139
 # 6 Fuel Oil gallon (US) 150,000 150
 Coal - Anthracite ton 15,200,000 15,200
 Coal - Bituminous Low Volatile ton 22,000,000 22,000
 Coal - High Volatile ton 28,600,000 28,600
 Coal - Lignite (Brown Coal) ton 13,800,000 13,800
 District Steam (Secondary) pound 1,000 1
 District Steam (Secondary) Kilo-pound 1,000,000 1,000
 Electricity kwh 3,412 3.412
 Natural Gas (Dth) dekatherm 1,000,000 1,000
 Natural Gas cubic feet 1,034 1.034
 Propane (LP Gas) gallon (US) 91,600 92
 Propane (LP Gas) pound 21,698 22